Half VII The Hue or Gourd. Lagenaria Vulgaris
The gourd plant cultivated by the natives of New Zealand was undoubtedly launched from the Pacific Isles, the place its cultivation is, or was, widespread. It’s the Cucurbita lagenaria of Linnaeus. Candolle, in his Origin of Cultivated Vegetation, remarks that, below cultivation, its fruit has taken totally different varieties, however that botanists have ranked them in a single species which contains a number of varieties. “Essentially the most exceptional are the pilgrim’s gourd, within the type of a bottle, the lengthy necked gourd, the trumpet gourd, and the calabash, typically massive and with out a neck…. The species could at all times be recognised by its white flower, and by the hardness of the outer rind of the fruit, which permits of its use as a vessel for liquids, or a reservoir of air appropriate as a buoy for novices in swimming.” This authority offers India as the unique habitat of the species, and says that it has been discovered there in a wild state, as additionally in Abyssinia. He doesn’t consider that it existed in America earlier than the arrival of Europeans, however remarks that “out of the ten identified species of the genus Cucurbita, six are definitely wild in America.” Concerning C. maxima (the nice yellow gourd, Spanish gourd, turban gourd, &c.) he’s uncertain, for it’s mentioned to have been seen on the Niger in a wild situation.
The overall Maori identify for the gourd is hue, by which identify additionally it is identified within the Society, Hawaiian, Paumotu and Gambier teams, and different isles of Polynesia. At Samoa it turns into fue. The names wenewene and kowenewene are additionally utilized to it on web page 245the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand, however aren’t extensively employed.
The gourd is honoured in Maori fable with a personified type, or father or mother, as is the case with the kumara. Among the many Awa folks of the Bay of A lot the gourd is believed to have originated with one Pū-tē-hue, who was one of many offspring of Tane. This Tane was the progenitor of man, and of all productions of the earth, he was the Fertiliser. This Pū-tē-hue remarked—”The seeds inside me shall present water vessels for my descendants. A few of these seeds are of the male intercourse and won’t bear fruit.” The seeds of the gourd have been planted in the course of the Turu and Rakaunui phases of the moon (sixteenth and seventeenth days of moons age), the next allure being repeated by the planter: —
“Pu-te-hue! Kia tuputupu nunui koe Ka porotaka i nga ringaringa Kia ahuahu nunui koe.”
This calls upon Pu-te-hue to flourish and develop into massive. The third line could seek advice from the curious place of the arms of the planter when about to put the seed within the earth, as defined beneath.
The gourd was cultivated to a substantial extent by the Maori in pre-European days, in all appropriate localities, but it surely didn’t flourish in some excessive mendacity districts, and was not successful within the South Island, the place seaweed vessels seem to have largely taken the place of the calabash. The Maori put the fruit of the gourd plant to 3 totally different makes use of, as a meals, as home vessels, and sometimes as floats. The outdated Maori gourd is nearly extinct now (1919). It’s now not essential to look to the gourd for home vessels, and the numerous launched sorts of pumpkin and squash are a lot simpler to develop for meals.
The Bay of A lot natives state that the gourd was launched into these isles lengthy earlier than the candy potato and the taro, which can be a truth, for the seeds might be wrapped up and carried with ease, the place massive tubers may spoil throughout an extended voyage, or perchance be consumed by hungry sea-farers.
Now we have already famous a number of remarks made by early voyagers in regards to the gourd as seen in cultivation right here. Banks wrote—”The cucumbers [gourd] have been set in small hollows or ditches, a lot as in England.” Cook dinner says—”The gourds have been set in small hollows, or dishes, a lot as in England.”
web page 246
In McNab’s Historic Information of New Zealand, Vol. 2, seems a Journal saved by one Lieut. L’Horne, of De Surville’s vessel, Saint Jean Baptiste. Below date December, 1769, he makes the next word: —”I’ve beforehand spoken of the candy potatoes which the natives domesticate. I need to add right here that in addition they domesticate a form of candy calabash, however solely in as small amount because the potatoes.”
The next word is taken from Bayly’s Journal, the author having been on board the Journey in 1773. When at Tolaga Bay in November, he wrote: —”They’ve small plantations of candy potatoes close to their homes, however they run lengthy and small usually. I noticed plantations of one thing that resemble Pompion Vegetation. They have been planted in the identical order the Gardeners plant Cucumbers in holes [in England]. The crops have been about two Inches above floor & out in tough leaf. They first set fireplace to the Wooden & then lower it about knee excessive & then flip the earth and cleanse it with sticks which serve as an alternative of spades.”
Colenso has written as follows on the gourd, its cultivation and makes use of: —”The third meals plant cultivated by them was a advantageous one of many gourd household, referred to as by them the hue. This noble and extremely helpful plant was yearly raised from seed, and was their just one so propagated; and, curiously sufficient, of this plant, although yielding seed in nice loads, there was just one species and no varieties. Its seeds, earlier than sowing have been wrapped up in a couple of dry fern fronds (Pteris esculenta), and steeped in working water for a couple of days. It was to them of nice service, furnishing not solely a prized and healthful vegetable meals, or fairly fruit, throughout the entire of the recent summer time days whereas it lasted, and earlier than their kumara have been ripe to be used, however was additionally of nice use in lots of different methods. It was at all times a delightful sight to see it rising in an appropriate soil, because it grew quick and seemed so remarkably wholesome with its quite a few leaves, massive white flowers and fruit, the latter usually of all sizes, from that of a cricket ball as much as that of a globular, pear formed, or spheroidal determine, able to holding a number of gallons. As an article of meals it was solely used when younger, and at all times cooked, baked just like the kwnara and taro, of their frequent earth oven, and eaten, like them, each cold and hot. Prodigious numbers of them have been previously day by day consumed in the summertime season. It was from this plant that the Maoris obtained all their helpful vessels for holding water, oils, cooked animal meals, &c. This was finished by fastidiously drying and hardening the absolutely matured fruits with the warmth of the solar web page 247and fireplace, and simply as fastidiously scooping out all their contents via a small gap made close to the stalk finish. Within the very small calabashes so made they saved their perfumed oils and rouge for anointing; of the medium sized and enormous ones they made helpful dishes, and all their frequent water calabashes, See Fig. 57 (p. 248) whereas the few very largest have been neatly manufactured into pots for holding preserved and potted birds. See Fig. 58 (p. 248). For this goal the stalk finish was lower off, and it was ingeniously fitted with a hole cylindrical neck of carved arduous wooden, lower out of 1 piece, and at all times made massive sufficient to confess a person’s hand via it; this was firmly fastened above, whereas beneath, the rotund vase was additionally fitted with three, or 4, legs to face on, and to maintain it from off the bottom. These large vessels have been at all times prized and brought nice care of, typically they have been named, and a few lasted an entire technology or longer, and have been handed down as heirlooms.” It is a good account, however it’s an error to say that it supplied all of the helpful home vessels of the Maori. See Figs. 59 and 60 (p. 249).
In one other paper Colenso says:—”The hue, which is just propagated by its seeds, may be very fixed to its variety, though it varies a lot in measurement and form, and has no varieties.” The natives, nevertheless, have totally different names for the fruit, utilized apparently to the totally different varieties assumed by it. The next names have been collected:—
1. Pahawa, or Pahaua Collected by John White. 2. Pare-tarakihi Collected by John White. 3. Rorerore Collected by John White. 4. Whangai-rangatira Collected by John White. 5. Kiato Collected in Wairarapa district. 6. Puau Collected in Wairarapa district. 7. Tatara Collected in Wairarapa district. 8. Ikaroa Collected in Bay of A lot district (Ngati-Awa and Tuhoe). 9. Kokako-ware Collected in Bay of A lot district (Ngati-Awa and Tuhoe). 10. Manuka-roa district Collected in Bay of A lot district (Ngati-Awa and Tuhoe). 11. Upoko-taupo Collected in Bay of A lot district (Ngati-Awa and Tuhoe). 12. Whakahua-mātua Collected in Bay of A lot district (Ngati-Awa and Tuhoe). 13. Wharehinu Collected in Bay of A lot district (Ngati-Awa and Tuhoe).
Of those No. 2 is alleged to be a big type, No. 10 was the sort utilized in making bowls (oko), for which goal they have been lower in half. No. 12 was used for the big vessels styled tahā huahua; No. 5 was for tahā wai, water vessels, No. 7 as a meals vessel (tahā huahua), as additionally was No. 6. See Figs. 57-58 (p. 248). web page 248 web page 249 web page 250 A small selection launched by Europeans is called kōkī. No. 7 grew to a bigger measurement than No. 5. Within the East Cape district the type of gourd with a curved stem finish used as water vessels are described as hue kautu. A spherical however flattened type is styled a kina as a result of in form it resembles the ocean urchin (kina). The identify of hue mōri appears to be utilized to a gourd after being taken from the vine. Gourds or gourd crops are typically termed kowenewene, a reputation that seems to have additionally been utilized to some insect, in all probability the hihue or hawk moth that frequents its white flowers. Matured gourds, when picked, have been dried earlier than a hearth, or buried in sandy, or gravelly soil, when the spongy inside (pukahu) would decay, whereupon it was simply eliminated via a small aperture, and the within surfaces cleaned with gravel as we clear a bottle with shot. After this the gourd was hung within the smoke of a hearth to harden.
The next notes have been furnished by Tuta Nihoniho, of Ngati-Porou:—The seeds of the gourd have been planted on the stuffed with the moon in little heaps of earth. The planter takes a seed in every hand, every held between thumb and finger, and, dealing with the east, he raises his arms till his fingers meet, however bringing them upward far aside in order to virtually describe a circle, so that the gourds could develop to an analogous massive measurement. As the precise arm is so introduced up, it’s bent on the elbow, in order that the gourds could purchase that type and develop with the curved shank so fascinating in gourds used as water vessels.
The Maori fertilised the feminine blossoms of the gourd plant as we serve these of the pumpkin at instances, a common follow within the early days of European settlement, when bees have been scarce. The phrase whakaaiai describes this course of.
In some circumstances gourds of an extended type have been brought on to imagine a form referred to as mahanga by having a band of flax tied spherical the center, which brought on the gourd to develop right into a dumb-bell like type. A gap was made in every of those ends, and these mahanga vessels have been used for potting the tui chook in. At a feast these vessels have been positioned in forked sticks which served as helps, and have been typically ornamented with feathers.
The Tuhoe folks of Ruatoki described their outdated technique of planting gourd seeds, to the author, and it agreed precisely with that given by Tuta, the arms swung upwards after which lowered in order to put the seeds within the gap ready for them. On the identical time the allure given above was repeated.
Seeds of the gourd plant have been subjected to a course of termed whakarau, ere being planted. On this course of they’re first soaked web page 251in water after which positioned in a small basket (kono), which accommodates a mix of earth (humus or sandy soil) and decayed wooden (popopo rakau). The seeds are embedded on this combination. The mould within the basket is then coated with leaves or grass, and the basket is buried within the heat earth close to a hearth till the seeds sprout, when they’re planted. I’ve brought on pumpkin seeds to germinate on this method, leaving them within the heat earth for about 24 hours, typically much less.
It was thought of fairly crucial that seeds of the gourd plant ought to be planted on the stuffed with the moon.
The primary pair of leaves put forth by a seedling gourd are termed rau kakano (seed leaves). The third leaf to look is styled rautara or patangaroa, and the fourth is the putaihinu. When these seem, then the work of cultivating or tending the crops commences, and the earth spherical them is loosened. When the younger shoots or runners (kawai) start to fall earthwards preparatory to working, the hika stage of progress is reached, after which it begins to run (toro). Wooden ashes are actually positioned around the plant as manure. Throughout the hika stage earth is heaped and pressed around the crops.
The fruit of the gourd plant is just match for meals in its younger state, whereas small and when the outer half is gentle. On this stage of progress the fruit is termed kotawa by the Mātātua tribes. It is vitally gentle when cooked and can’t be termed a sustaining meals, being very similar to our squash or vegetable marrow. The gourds that have been allowed to mature turned very arduous and dry, the rind resembling wooden. These have been used as vessels to comprise meals, water, &c. The most important ones have been chosen for use as vessels whereby to protect meals of varied sorts, reminiscent of birds and rats. Others, often considerably smaller, have been used as water vessels. These calabashes are referred to as tăhā, ipu, kahaka, kiaka, kimi, koaka, pahaka, papapa, tăhē, tawha and wai. (See Williams’ Maori Dictionary.) Some have been lower in half, every half getting used as a bowl or basin, oko or karaha. Small ones have been used for an excellent many functions; exquisites used them to comprise the scented oil used for bathroom functions.
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In his work Te Ika a Maui, the Rev. R. Taylor remarks:—”The hue (or gourd) is in all places raised, and it’s, certainly, a superb vegetable. It bears a white flower, and produces a calabash which is typically of very massive dimensions. When younger it’s a scrumptious vegetable. When ripe it’s of the best use, supplying the place of crockery. In it the New Zealander web page 252carries his water, his shops, potted birds, fish or flesh; he additionally makes use of it as a dish, and at the same time as a lamp. It’s usually superbly ornamented with tattooing. The natives have a really singular thought respecting the hue, that the seed can at all times be procured from the entrails of the sperm whale, which they affirm they’ve continuously verified. They account for it by saying, “that, in Hawaiki, the hue grows upon and hangs over the cliffs in nice portions, which, when ripe, fall into the ocean and are devoured by the whales which frequent that half.”
This fable can solely be in contrast with such puerile beliefs as that in regards to the cuckoo, its origin and mode of passing the winter.
In Crozet’s Voyage are famous a couple of remarks on the gourd plant cultivated by the Maoris, and the makes use of to which the fruit thereof was put—”They domesticate a couple of small fields of potatoes just like these of the Two Indies, in addition they domesticate gourds, which they eat when they’re small and tender, and when they’re ripe they take out the within, dry them, and make use of them for carrying and conserving water. A few of their calabashes will maintain as a lot as from ten to 12 pints of water.”
The next merchandise appeared in an account of New Zealand merchandise revealed within the Sydney Herald of April 17, 1837—”The calabash (referred to as in its inexperienced state a ui [hue], and when dried and scooped out for holding water, a taha, will decidedly not hold with out consideration to them, as they rot faster than the kumara; the younger calabash is fastidiously lifted from the bottom when concerning the measurement of a giant orange, and a few dry grass is then always saved below it till it attains maturity. In its small state it’s thought of fairly a luxurious by the New Zealanders; it is vitally watery, however, with a little bit help from butter and pepper, it turns into a really satisfactory meals; and I ought to think about a really healthful one.”
The Matatua folks apply the identify of hue to a constellation of 4 stars referred to as Pi-a-wai, presumably on account of its type.
On the East Coast the time period hue kautu was utilized to gourds that grew in an upright place, whereas hue kaupeka denoted people who decreased in measurement on the stem finish, such stem being curved. These have been used as water vessels.
East Coast natives assert that gourd seeds have been typically planted in a seed mattress, he mea parekereke, and transplanted into the puke or small mounds, 4 being planted in every. Ends of runners have been usually pinched off, and likewise a number of the web page 253young fruit eliminated, if massive fruit have been desired for vessels. In such a case the bottom was smoothed below the fruit, and haply coated with sand. The runners are termed kawai. A gourd supposed for a taha huahua was usually stood up on finish and saved in that place by way of pegs, that it would assume the specified type. The puau selection had a thicker rind than most others.
An outdated saying pertaining to the gourd is—”Te kai pae kau a Rangi.”
The late Mr. John White collected the next allure repeated by an individual when planting gourd seeds:—
“He aha taku kakano? He Turu taku kakano He Rakau-nui taku kakano Moe mai na taku toko Takoto mai ra koutou ko au tamariki Hua kiwi, huahua moho Te homai te ringia Ki te kawekawe o Pu-te-hue.”
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These puerile compositions have been alleged to have impact in producing crop. The names of the 2 phrases or “nights” of the moon on which gourd seed was planted are right here utilized to the seed itself—”What’s my seed? My seed is a Turu; my seed is a Rakaunui.” A request additionally appears to be made that quite a few fruit just like the eggs of the kiwi and moho (birds) be fashioned upon the kawekawe or runners of Pu-te-hue (the gourd plant). The egg of the kiwi is an abnormally massive one, therefore, maybe, the reference to it.
The next word was additionally discovered amongst Mr. White’s papers:—”When the primary younger fruit was plucked and cooked early within the season, a department of the karamu shrub was put into the oven and the prepare dinner tending the oven made sure actions of the fingers over the oven as if he or she have been digging with a ko. That is alleged to have had the impact of inflicting the gourd vines to bear abundantly.”
There was a variety within the measurement of matured gourds, some have been very small. Colenso says that, in capability, they ranged from a gill to 3 gallons.
Forster tells us that the natives of Queen Charlotte Sound, who obtained glass bottles from Cook dinner’s vessels, utilized the identify of tăhā to them, from the identify of their gourd vessels.
In his Historical past of the Hawaiian Islands, J. J. Jarves remarks:—”Essentially the most helpful article, and one which may be utilized to an web page 254almost limitless number of functions, is the fruit of the Cucurbita, the calabash or gourd. From it their ingesting vessels, dishes, masks, and musical devices have been made…. They’re usually prettily ornamented after the identical patterns as their tapa, and are of each measurement, from the smallest water cup to the nice poi dish able to holding ten gallons.”
The curious identify Te Ika roa a Rauru was utilized to the gourd in former instances, and an outdated fragment reads:—”The gourd emanated from Rauru, therefore it’s Te Ika roa a Rauru. On the loss of life of Rauru it was allowed to develop into prostrate and to unfold out; and it was additionally then eaten.” The which means of that is unknown, it in all probability refers to some outdated fable. Within the outdated legend regarding Maia-poroaki of the East Cape district, Maia is alleged to have, by stress and different means, brought on gourds to imagine totally different varieties, to every of which was assigned a particular identify. Thus the one with a curved stem finish was referred to as Hine-kotuku-rangi; an extended type was styled Te Ika roa a Rauru. One other with an enormous base and narrowing towards the stem was named Pu-matao. A spherical type was Tawake piri, whereas two diminutive varieties have been Ponotinoti and Te Karure. These names have been in all probability mere native ones.
The Hawaiians handled the rising fruit of the gourd with nice care, and so produced the totally different varieties desired for varied functions. Some have been suspended in order to hold between containing sticks. On the dried floor of a thick gourd rind, says the Hawaiian, fireplace may be generated by friction as it’s on a bit of wooden. These folks have been as cautious as was the Maori to plant crops solely in the course of the sure phases of the moon, on sure nights of the moon, because the Maori places it.
In David Malo’s Hawaiian Antiquities we word the next:—”The calabash, or pohue, was the fruit of a vine that was specifically cultivated. Some have been of a form suited to be umeke [kumete in Maori], others ipu kai [food bowls], and others nonetheless for use as hue wai [Maori tahā wai] or water containers. The gentle pulp inside was first scraped out; later, when the gourd had been dried, the within was rubbed and smoothed with a bit of coral or pumice, and thus the calabash was accomplished. A canopy was added and a web typically put about it. In getting ready a water gourd, or hue wai, the pulp was first rotted, then small stones have been shaken about in it, after which it was allowed to face with water in it until it had develop into candy.”
In an account of the Sandwich Isles given in Cook dinner’s Voyages, happens the next:—”The gourds, which develop to so huge web page 255a measurement that a few of them are able to containing from ten to 12 gallons, are utilized to all method of home functions, and with the intention to match them the higher to their respective makes use of, they’ve the ingenuity to provide them totally different varieties by tying bandages spherical them throughout their progress. Thus a few of them are of lengthy cylindrical type, as greatest tailored to comprise their fishing sort out; others are of a dish type … which two types have neat, shut covers, made likewise of the gourd; others once more are precisely the form of a bottle with an extended neck, and in these they hold their water. They’ve likewise a way of scoring them with a heated instrument, in order to provide them the looks of being painted, in quite a lot of neat and stylish designs.”
A publication of the Bishop Museum at Honolulu states that Cucurbita maxima, the large gourd, was cultivated within the Hawaiian Group previous to the arrival of Europeans.
Ellis remarks that the ingesting water of the Tahitians “is contained in calabashes, that are a lot bigger than any I ever noticed used for a similar goal within the Sandwich Islands, however destitute of decoration. They’re saved in nets of cinet, and suspended from some a part of the dwelling.”
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